The Association between Serum Cytokines and Damage to Large and Small Nerve Fibers in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and may involve small and large peripheral nerve bers. Recent evidence suggests a role of cytokines in DPN. e paper is aimed at exploring whether the serum concentration of cytokines is associated with small and large nerve ber function and with neuropathic pain (NP). We recruited a group of 32 type...

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Diagnosis and treatment of pain in plexopathy, radiculopathy, peripheral neuropathy and phantom limb pain Evidence and recommendations from the italian consensus conference on pain on Neurorehabilitation

Pain may affect all aspects of social life and reduce the quality of life. Neuropathic pain (Np) is common in patients affected by plexopathy, radiculopathy, mononeuropathy, peripheral neuropathy. phantom limb pain (plp) is a painful sensation that is common after amputation, and its pathophysiological mechanisms involve changes in the peripheral and central nervous system.

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ALS dysphagia pathophysiology Differential botulinum toxin response

Objectives: This study looked at the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoTox-A) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with dysphagia due to isolated upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement or combined UMN/lower motor neuron (LMN) impairment associated with oral phase or oropharyngeal muscles involvement. Establishing whether different pathophysiologic mecha- nisms underlie different re...

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Homeostatic-like plasticity of the primary motor hand area is impaired in focal hand dystonia

The excitability of inhibitory circuits in patients with writer’s cramp is reduced at multiple levels within the sensorimotor system, including the primary motor hand area (M1). Although this may play a major role in the pathophysiology of writer’s cramp, it is still unclear what factors may cause the imbalance between inhibition and excitation to arise. One possibility is that homeostatic mec...

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Corticospinal Excitability During Motor Imagery of a Simple Tonic Finger Movement in Patients With Writer’s Cramp

Abstract Motor imagery (MI) is the mental rehearsal of a motor act without overt movement. Using transcranial mag- netic stimulation (TMS), we tested the effect of MI on corti- cospinal excitability in patients with writer’s cramp. In 10 patients with writer’s cramp and 10 healthy controls, we ap- plied focal TMS over each primary motor area and recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from ...

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Abnormal associative plasticity of the human motor cortex in writer’s cramp

Summary Low-frequency median nerve stimulation, paired with suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the optimal site for activation of the abduc- tor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle induces a long-lasting increase in the excitability of corticospinal output neu- rons, if median nerve stimulation is given 25 ms before TMS. Here we employed this protocol of stimulation to assess as...

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