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Francesca Magrinelli,1 Chiara Briani,2 Marcello Romano,3 Susanna Ruggero,2 Elisabetta Toffanin,2 Giuseppa Triolo,4 George Chummar Peter,5 Marialuigia Praitano,6 Matteo Francesco Lauriola,6 Giampietro Zanette,6 and Stefano Tamburin1

1 Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Piazzale Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy 2Department of Neurosciences, Sciences NPSRR, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 5, 35128 Padova, Italy
3Neurology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti Villa So a Cervello, Piazzetta Salerno 3, 90146 Palermo, Italy 4Internal Medicine Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti Villa So a Cervello, Piazzetta Salerno 3, 90146 Palermo, Italy 5Diabetology Unit, Pederzoli Hospital, Via Monte Baldo 24, 37019 Peschiera del Garda, Italy
6Neurology Unit, Pederzoli Hospital, Via Monte Baldo 24, 37019 Peschiera del Garda, Italy
Correspondence should be addressed to Stefano Tamburin; stefano.tamburin@univr.it Received 11 January 2015; Revised 31 March 2015; Accepted 2 April 2015
Academic Editor: Roberto Mallone
Copyright © 2015 Francesca Magrinelli et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and may involve small and large peripheral nerve bers. Recent evidence suggests a role of cytokines in DPN. e paper is aimed at exploring whether the serum concentration of cytokines is associated with small and large nerve ber function and with neuropathic pain (NP). We recruited a group of 32 type 2 DM patients who underwent serum cytokines (TNF-𝛼, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) dosage as well as electrodiagnostic and quantitative sensory testing (QST) assessment to explore damage to large and small nerve bers. Raised serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated with markers of large nerve ber sensory and motor axonal damage. Raised IL-10 serum level was associated with signs of motor nerve demyelination. No di erences were found in pain characteristics and electrodiagnostic and QST markers of small nerve ber function in relation to cytokines serum levels. IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels were associated with large nerve ber damage but not to small bers function or NP. IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines might play a role in the pathogenesis of nerve ber damage or represent a compensatory or neuroprotective mechanism.